Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://apo.ansto.gov.au/dspace/handle/10238/13734
Title: [Ca2+] and [SO2- 4] in Phanerozoic and terminal Proterozoic seawater from fluid inclusions in halite: the significance of Ca-SO4 crossover points
Authors: Weldeghebrial, MF
Lowenstein, TK
García-Veigas, J
Cendón, DI
Keywords: Seawater
Water chemistry
Halite
Calcium
Sulfur
Aragonite
Calcite
Issue Date: 15-Sep-2022
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Weldeghebriel, M. F., Lowenstein, T. K., García-Veigas, J., & Cendón, D. I. (2022). [Ca2+] and [SO2− 4] in Phanerozoic and terminal Proterozoic seawater from fluid inclusions in halite: The significance of Ca-SO4 crossover points. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 594, 117712. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117712
Abstract: Chemical analyses of 2,618 (1,640 new and 978 published) fluid inclusions in marine halite were used to define paleoseawater [Ca2+] and [SO2- 4] over the past 550 million years (Myr). Three types of fluid inclusion brine chemistries were recognized based on measured [Ca2+] and [SO2- 4]: (1) SO4-rich with [SO2- 4] ≫ [Ca2+]; (2) Ca-rich with [Ca2+] ≫ [SO2- 4]; and (3) Ca-SO4 crossover points with [Ca2+] ≈ [SO2- 4]. The SO4-rich and Ca-rich fluid inclusion chemistries oscillated twice in the terminal Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. Transitions between SO4-rich and Ca-rich seas, here called "Ca2+ -SO2- 4 crossover points” occurred four times: terminal Proterozoic–Early Cambrian (544–515 Ma), Late Pennsylvanian (309–305 Ma), Triassic–Jurassic boundary (∼200 Ma), and Eocene–Oligocene (36–34 Ma). New fluid inclusion analyses using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry better defined the [Ca2+] and [SO2- 4] in seawater at the Late Pennsylvanian and Eocene–Oligocene crossover points and the timing of the Triassic–Jurassic crossover point. Crossover points coincide with shifts in seawater Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios, the mineralogies of marine non-skeletal carbonates and shell building organisms (aragonite vs. calcite) and potash evaporites (MgSO4 vs. KCl types). Phanerozoic and terminal Proterozoic trends in seawater [Ca2+] and [SO2- 4] also coincide with supercontinent breakup, dispersal, and assembly cycles, greenhouse–icehouse climates, and modeled atmospheric ρCO2. Paleoseawater [Ca2+] and [SO2- 4] were calculated from the fluid inclusion data using the assumption that the [Ca2+] × [SO2- 4] ranged from 150 to 450 mmolal2, which is 0.5–1.5 times the [Ca2+] = 11 × [SO2- 4] = 29 product in modern seawater (319 mmolal2). Two additional end-member scenarios, independent of the [Ca2+] × [SO2- 4] = 150–450 mmolal2 assumption, were tested using constraints from fluid inclusion [Ca] and [SO4]: (1) constant [SO2- 4] = 29 mmolal as in modern seawater, and variable [Ca2+], and (2) constant [Ca2+] = 11 mmolal as in modern seawater and variable [SO2- 4]. Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios calculated from the three scenarios were compared to independent data on the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios from skeletal carbonates (echinoderms and corals) and mid-ocean ridge flank calcite veins. Constant [Ca2+] of 11 mmolal is unlikely because this relatively low concentration generated unreasonably low seawater [SO2- 4] during most of the past 550 Myr and high Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios compared to independent data. Constant [SO2- 4] of 29 mmolal produced unreasonably high seawater [Ca2+] and lower Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios than those derived from fluid inclusions, echinoderms, corals, and calcite veins. Variable [Ca2+] and [SO2- 4] showed the best agreement with the Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios derived from fluid inclusions, echinoderms, corals, and calcite veins. © 2022 Elsevier B.V.
URI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117712
https://apo.ansto.gov.au/dspace/handle/10238/13734
ISSN: 0012-821X
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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